I understand the term “Russian Constructivism” primarily in relation to the work of artists commonly associated with two institutions that emerged in the aftermath of the Russian Revolution of 1917: the INKhUK (Institute of Artistic Culture), founded in Moscow in 1920, and UNOVIS (Champions of the New Art), and artists’ collective founded in Vitebsk in 1919 and led by Kazimir Malevich and Marc Chagall. Lissitzky was a member of UNOVIS until 1922. Though both organizations were directly affected by the tectonic sociopolitical shift resulting from the Russian Revolution and the cultural need to reconstruct Russian society in the years that followed, they approached the new visual culture of Russia differently. INKhUK was primarily concerned with examining the material properties of objects and the concept of “spatial construction,” while UNOVIS evidenced a stylistically diverse approach that originated within Malevich’s Suprematist theories. For the first comprehensive scholarly analysis of Russian Constructivism, see Christina Lodder, Russian Constructivism (New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 1983). For a more recent study of Constructivism, focusing primarily on Moscow artists and evaluating their political affiliations, see Maria Gough, The Artist as Producer: Russian Constructivism in Revolution (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2005).