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Mansudae Master Class: The Monumental Gifts from North Korea

Since 1960, the North Korean government has constructed many buildings, monuments, and statues in Africa. These architectural structures have been covered by the international press since 2010, when the African Renaissance Monument was inaugurated in Senegal. I began intensive research on the subject in 2012 for a documentary film that is focused, in particular, on the buildings made by the North Koreans, free of charge, in Africa in the 1970s. For this project, I interviewed African journalists, museum directors, architects, and others interested in North Korean arts and architecture. None of the people I spoke to know exactly why the North Koreans offered their help at no cost. They assume, however, that among the main reasons is the friendship between African leaders/dictators and Kim Il-sung, the first North Korean leader/dictator.

To date, the North Koreans have constructed buildings, monuments, and statues in eighteen African countries, roughly half of which received the free-construction benefits offered by Kim Il-sung. Behind this North Korean diplomatic strategy lies a competition between North and South Korea, something not generally known in either the Western world or Africa. Just after the armistice at the end of the Korean War in 1953, problems related to the military demarcation line between North and South Korea and to the stationing of the U.S. Army in South Korea were addressed but not resolved by the United Nations—and then magnified by the Cold War and the larger world conflict between democracy and communism.

It is within this context, as the newly independent African nations joined the United Nations in the 1960s, that North Korea first sought to secure African support. In addition, North Korea strove to join the Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) of which many African countries were members.(1) The numerous architectural structures built across Africa in the 1970s—including the Youth and Children’s Palace in Sudan, the stadium in Tanzania (called the Kim Il-sung Stadium), the presidential palace in Madagascar, and the water channels for agriculture in Ethiopia—are regarded as examples of North Korea’s diplomatic efforts.

The situation has, ironically, changed since the 2000s. As the economic situation in North Korea grew dramatically worse in the mid-1990s, the country’s Mansudae Overseas Project Group of Companies began to dispatch artists and laborers to Africa.(2) During long-term stays in Namibia, Senegal, Botswana, Congo, etc., members of this organization have earned foreign currency by constructing large-scale statues and buildings. In fact, these structures reflect the well-made forms of the Socialist Realism style; for example, the new Independence Memorial Museum, opened in Namibia in 2014, features the strong vertical lines and symmetrical surface characteristic of the Socialist Realism style, as does the Youth Hotel in Pyongyang, North Korea. The large African Renaissance Monument showcases North Korea’s current bronze-casting technique, which has been used and developed to make more than twenty thousand statues of Kim Il-sung. However, the buildings and the monuments made by the North Koreans inevitably become subject to debate for political and social reasons: because they sometimes honor the dictatorships of African nations, they arouse suspicion of hidden connections between North Korea and Africa—the latter of which possesses the main materials necessary for nuclear development.

Architectural structures can be seen as controversial in any city. If perceived as overtly social and/or political, they can become subject to criticism and gossip. Today, North Korea is ridiculed, yet at the same time, it has captured the world's attention. Human rights violations and the political situation in North Korea have clouded how these structures are viewed. In this context, North Korean architecture, monuments, and statues in Africa could serve as a portal to greater understanding, for they represent not just Africa, but also the history of the Korean peninsula and the current state of North Korea.

1) In Bandung, Indonesia, in 1955, there was a meeting among newly independent nations of Asia and Africa for anti-imperialism, independence, and non-alliance against more powerful Western nations. The first Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) Summit Conference took place in Belgrade in 1961; after the second meeting, African countries made up the majority of the group.

2) Known as the cradle of revolutionary art, the Mansudae Art Studio is a North Korean arts organization, established in 1959. Its members have built about 3,800 statues and 179 monuments throughout North Korea. Mansudae Overseas Project Group of Companies and its affiliated departments are in charge of buildings, monuments, and other architectural projects overseas. This department is known for earning substantial foreign currency since 2000.

Author

Img 20151206 144702

Onejoon Che

Onejoon Che, a visual artist and filmmaker, started his career as an evidence photographer. For Texas Project (2004-2008), Che photographed the declining red-light... Read more »
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Mansudae Master Class: The Monumental Gifts from North Korea

Since 1960, the North Korean government has constructed many buildings, monuments, and statues in Africa. These architectural structures have been covered by the international press since 2010, when the African Renaissance Monument was inaugurated in Senegal. I began intensive research on the subject in 2012 for a documentary film that is focused, in particular, on the buildings made by the North Koreans, free of charge, in Africa in the 1970s. For this project, I interviewed African journalists, museum directors, architects, and others interested in North Korean arts and architecture. None of the people I spoke to know exactly why the North Koreans offered their help at no cost. They assume, however, that among the main reasons is the friendship between African leaders/dictators and Kim Il-sung, the first North Korean leader/dictator.

To date, the North Koreans have constructed buildings, monuments, and statues in eighteen African countries, roughly half of which received the free-construction benefits offered by Kim Il-sung. Behind this North Korean diplomatic strategy lies a...

Show More

Since 1960, the North Korean government has constructed many buildings, monuments, and statues in Africa. These architectural structures have been covered by the international press since 2010, when the African Renaissance Monument was inaugurated in Senegal. I began intensive research on the subject in 2012 for a documentary film that is focused, in particular, on the buildings made by the North Koreans, free of charge, in Africa in the 1970s. For this project, I interviewed African journalists, museum directors, architects, and others interested in North Korean arts and architecture. None of the people I spoke to know exactly why the North Koreans offered their help at no cost. They assume, however, that among the main reasons is the friendship between African leaders/dictators and Kim Il-sung, the first North Korean leader/dictator.

To date, the North Koreans have constructed buildings, monuments, and statues in eighteen African countries, roughly half of which received the free-construction benefits offered by Kim Il-sung. Behind this North Korean diplomatic strategy lies a competition between North and South Korea, something not generally known in either the Western world or Africa. Just after the armistice at the end of the Korean War in 1953, problems related to the military demarcation line between North and South Korea and to the stationing of the U.S. Army in South Korea were addressed but not resolved by the United Nations—and then magnified by the Cold War and the larger world conflict between democracy and communism.

It is within this context, as the newly independent African nations joined the United Nations in the 1960s, that North Korea first sought to secure African support. In addition, North Korea strove to join the Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) of which many African countries were members.(1) The numerous architectural structures built across Africa in the 1970s—including the Youth and Children’s Palace in Sudan, the stadium in Tanzania (called the Kim Il-sung Stadium), the presidential palace in Madagascar, and the water channels for agriculture in Ethiopia—are regarded as examples of North Korea’s diplomatic efforts.

The situation has, ironically, changed since the 2000s. As the economic situation in North Korea grew dramatically worse in the mid-1990s, the country’s Mansudae Overseas Project Group of Companies began to dispatch artists and laborers to Africa.(2) During long-term stays in Namibia, Senegal, Botswana, Congo, etc., members of this organization have earned foreign currency by constructing large-scale statues and buildings. In fact, these structures reflect the well-made forms of the Socialist Realism style; for example, the new Independence Memorial Museum, opened in Namibia in 2014, features the strong vertical lines and symmetrical surface characteristic of the Socialist Realism style, as does the Youth Hotel in Pyongyang, North Korea. The large African Renaissance Monument showcases North Korea’s current bronze-casting technique, which has been used and developed to make more than twenty thousand statues of Kim Il-sung. However, the buildings and the monuments made by the North Koreans inevitably become subject to debate for political and social reasons: because they sometimes honor the dictatorships of African nations, they arouse suspicion of hidden connections between North Korea and Africa—the latter of which possesses the main materials necessary for nuclear development.

Architectural structures can be seen as controversial in any city. If perceived as overtly social and/or political, they can become subject to criticism and gossip. Today, North Korea is ridiculed, yet at the same time, it has captured the world's attention. Human rights violations and the political situation in North Korea have clouded how these structures are viewed. In this context, North Korean architecture, monuments, and statues in Africa could serve as a portal to greater understanding, for they represent not just Africa, but also the history of the Korean peninsula and the current state of North Korea.

1) In Bandung, Indonesia, in 1955, there was a meeting among newly independent nations of Asia and Africa for anti-imperialism, independence, and non-alliance against more powerful Western nations. The first Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) Summit Conference took place in Belgrade in 1961; after the second meeting, African countries made up the majority of the group.

2) Known as the cradle of revolutionary art, the Mansudae Art Studio is a North Korean arts organization, established in 1959. Its members have built about 3,800 statues and 179 monuments throughout North Korea. Mansudae Overseas Project Group of Companies and its affiliated departments are in charge of buildings, monuments, and other architectural projects overseas. This department is known for earning substantial foreign currency since 2000.

     
1 1

Tiglachin Monument, built 1977, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

1 2.40 52

Statue of Patrice Lumumba (first legally elected prime minister of Democratic Republic of the Congo), built 2002, Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo

1 3

Three Dikgosi Monument, built 2005, Gaborone, Botswana

1 3.sclupture

Three Dikgosi Monument, built 2005, designed in North Korea, reproduced in South Korea

1 4.40 50

Bust of Laurent Kabila (former president of Democratic Republic of the Congo), built 2002, Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo

1 5

Hero’s Acre, built 2002, Windhoek, Namibia

1 6

Independence Hall, under construction, Windhoek, Namibia

1 7

Mural #1, Independence Hall, Windhoek, Namibia

1 8

Mural #2, Independence Hall, Windhoek, Namibia

1 9

Statue of Sam Nujoma (former president of Namibia)

2 0

Independence Hall, Windhoek, Namibia

2 1

Darth Vader_SWAPO, Windhoek, Namibia

2 2

Iavoloha Palace, built c. 1970s, Antananarivo, Madagascar

2 3

Pumping stations, Madagascar

2 4

Boarding house for North Korean workers, Madagascar

2 5. senegal 2.60 85.8 77 101.8

Monument de l’Indépendance, Dakar, Senegal

1 1. jpg

African Renaissance Monument, built 2010, Dakar, Senegal

1 2.tourist from senegal

Tourist from Senegal

1 3.tourist from burkina faso 2

Tourist from Burkina Faso

1 4.tourists from burkina faso

Tourists from Burkina Faso

1 5.tourists from congo

Tourists from Democratic Republic of the Congo

1 6.tourists from mauritania

Tourists from Mauritania

1 7.tourists from ethiopia

Tourists from Ethiopia

1 8.tourists from gabon

Tourists from Gabon

25.atepa

Interview with Pierre Goudiaby Atepa

2 0.

African Renaissance Monument, designed in North Korea, reproduced in South Korea

2 7.senegal 3.60 85.8

Flood area in Senegal #1, Dakar, Senegal

2 8.senegal 4

Flood area in Senegal #2, Dakar, Senegal

1 1.zimbabwe 2 60 85.

Demolished site of statue of Joshua Nkomo (former vice president of Zimbabwe), Bulawayo, Zimbabwe

1 2.zimbabwe 3 1

Statue of Joshua Nkomo (former vice president of Zimbabwe), Bulawayo, Zimbabwe

1 3.bulawayo citizen 1

Bulawayo citizens in front of Nkomo statue

1 4.bulawayo citizen 2

Bulawayo citizens in front of Nkomo statue

1 5.bulawayo citizen 3

Bulawayo citizens in front of Nkomo statue

1 6.bulawayo citizen 4

Bulawayo citizens in front of Nkomo statue

1 7

Statue of Joshua Nkomo, built 2011 and installed in the backyard of the Natural History Museum, Bulawayo, Zimbabwe

36.son of nkomo

Interview with Sibangilizwe Nkomo

1 9

The Story of My Life, autobiography of Joshua Nkomo

3 0

Headquarters of ZANU-PF (Zimbabwe African National Union–Patriotic Front), Harare, Zimbabwe

3 1.zimbabwe 1.

Hero’s Acre, built 1981, Harare, Zimbabwe

3 2.zimbabwe 6  60 85.8

National Railways of Zimbabwe Headquarters (tallest building in Bulawayo), Zimbabwe

3 3

ZANU-PF (Zimbabwe African National Union–Patriotic Front) campaign office, Bulawayo, Zimbabwe

1 1.

Rodong Sinmun (Workers’ Newspaper)

1 2.%e1%84%82%e1%85%a9%e1%84%83%e1%85%a9%e1%86%bc%e1%84%89%e1%85%b5%e1%86%ab%e1%84%86%e1%85%ae%e1%86%ab %e1%84%86%e1%85%a9%e1%84%8c%e1%85%a1%e1%86%b7%e1%84%87%e1%85%b5%e1%84%8f%e1%85%b3  %e1%84%86%e1%85%a1%e1%86%af%e1%84%85%e1%85%b5

Rodong Sinmun (Workers’ Newspaper)

1 3

Rodong Sinmun (Workers’ Newspaper)

1 4 copy

Rodong Sinmun (Workers’ Newspaper)

1 5

Rodong Sinmun (Workers’ Newspaper)

47.

President Kim Il-sung meeting foreign heads of state, reedited by Onejoon Che

1 7

Kim Il-sung. Sur le travail de l’union des femmes (On the Work of the Women’s Union)

1 8.nk book the traces of korean communist

Kim Il-sung. Les Taches des Communistes Coréens (The Tasks of Korean Communists)

1 9.

Kim Jong Il. The Leader of the Youth Movement

2 0

Kim Il-sung. Réponses aux questions posées par le secrétaire général et d’amitié Peruvian-Coréen (Answers to the questions asked by the general secretary of the Cultural Institute for Peruvian-Korean Friendship)

2 1.nk book a great personality

A Great Personality

53.

Onejoon Che. Archival footage from Mansudae Master Class. 2015

2 3

Daily Production Report (21 June 2010–3 February 2011)

2 4

Daily Production Report (3 February 2011–2 June 2011)

2 5

Attendance book of Independence Hall, made by a North Korean worker in July 2010

2 6

Blueprint of Independence Hall, made by Mansudae Overseas Project Group of Companies, Windhoek, Namibia

2 7

Auser Baalu Girma. Call of the Red Star

2 8

Assefa Endeshaw. Sacrifice Life for Country (History of Red Flag)

2 9

Catalogue of Mansudae Overseas Project Group of Companies.

60 1

Sculptor Songsu Choe

60 2

Painter Hyoksin Choe

60 3

Sculptor Inmo Sin

60 4

Sculptor Younggwang Lee

3 0

Cover of booklet for Mansudae Overseas Project Group of Companies

3 2

Interior page of booklet for Mansudae Overseas Project Group of Companies

3 3

Interior page of booklet for Mansudae Overseas Project Group of Companies

3 4

Interior page of booklet for Mansudae Overseas Project Group of Companies

3 5

Interior page of booklet for Mansudae Overseas Project Group of Companies

3 6

Interior page of booklet for Mansudae Overseas Project Group of Companies

3 8 copy

Postcard (front)

3 9

Postcard (back)

4 0

Archive installation of Mansudae Master Class

M.m.c 3

Three Channel Video installation of Mansudae Master Class

New museum triennial 2015 benoit pailley 7723 (1)

Exhibition view of Mansudae Master Class

1 1

Tiglachin Monument, built 1977, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

2015. Digital C-print, 23 5/8 x 33 7/8 in. (60 x 86 cm)

1 2.40 52

Statue of Patrice Lumumba (first legally elected prime minister of Democratic Republic of the Congo), built 2002, Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo

2013. Digital C-print, 26 x 20 1/16 in. (66 x 51 cm). From a series of photographs commissioned in 2013 by Musée du quai Branly, Paris

1 3

Three Dikgosi Monument, built 2005, Gaborone, Botswana

2013. Digital C-print, 26 x 20 1/16 in. (51 x 66 cm). From a series of photographs commissioned in 2013 by Musée du quai Branly, Paris

1 3.sclupture

Three Dikgosi Monument, built 2005, designed in North Korea, reproduced in South Korea

2014. Fiber-reinforced plastic (FRP), dimensions variable. Things Fall Apart , curated by Mark Nash, Iwalewahaus, Bayreuth, 2016

1 4.40 50

Bust of Laurent Kabila (former president of Democratic Republic of the Congo), built 2002, Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo

2013. Digital C-print, 26 x 20 1/16 in. (51 x 66 cm). From a series of photographs commissioned in 2013 by Musée du quai Branly, Paris

1 5

Hero’s Acre, built 2002, Windhoek, Namibia

2013. Digital C-print, 23 5/8 x 33 7/8 in. (60 x 86 cm). From a series of photographs commissioned in 2013 by Musée du quai Branly, Paris

1 6

Independence Hall, under construction, Windhoek, Namibia

2013. Digital C-print, 23 5/8 x 33 7/8 in. (60 x 86 cm). From a series of photographs commissioned in 2013 by Musée du quai Branly, Paris

1 7

Mural #1, Independence Hall, Windhoek, Namibia

2015. Digital C-print, 23 5/8 x 29 9/16 in. (60 x 75 cm)

1 8

Mural #2, Independence Hall, Windhoek, Namibia

2015. Digital C-print, 23 5/8 x 29 9/16 in. (60 x 75 cm)

1 9

Statue of Sam Nujoma (former president of Namibia)

2015. Digital C-print, 23 5/8 x 33 7/8 in. (60 x 86 cm)

2 0

Independence Hall, Windhoek, Namibia

2015. Digital C-print, 23 5/8 x 33 7/8 in. (60 x 86 cm)

2 1

Darth Vader_SWAPO, Windhoek, Namibia

2015. Digital C-print, 23 5/8 x 33 7/8 in. (60 x 86 cm)

2 2

Iavoloha Palace, built c. 1970s, Antananarivo, Madagascar

2015. Digital C-print, 23 5/8 x 33 7/8 in. (60 x 86 cm)

2 3

Pumping stations, Madagascar

2015. Digital C-print, 23 5/8 x 33 7/8 in. (60 x 86 cm)

2 4

Boarding house for North Korean workers, Madagascar

2015. Digital C-print, 23 5/8 x 33 7/8 in. (60 x 86 cm)

2 5. senegal 2.60 85.8 77 101.8

Monument de l’Indépendance, Dakar, Senegal

2013. Digital C-print, 23 5/8 x 33 7/8 in. (60 x 86 cm). From a series of photographs commissioned in 2013 by Musée du quai Branly, Paris

1 1. jpg

African Renaissance Monument, built 2010, Dakar, Senegal

2013. Digital C-print, 20 1/16 x 26 in. (66 x 51 cm). From a series of photographs commissioned in 2013 by Musée du quai Branly, Paris

1 2.tourist from senegal

Tourist from Senegal

1 3.tourist from burkina faso 2

Tourist from Burkina Faso

1 4.tourists from burkina faso

Tourists from Burkina Faso

1 5.tourists from congo

Tourists from Democratic Republic of the Congo

1 6.tourists from mauritania

Tourists from Mauritania

1 7.tourists from ethiopia

Tourists from Ethiopia

1 8.tourists from gabon

Tourists from Gabon

Interview with Pierre Goudiaby Atepa

Excerpt from feature-length documentary film Black Monument , due to be completed in 2016.For more information about Atepa, see here.

2 0.

African Renaissance Monument, designed in North Korea, reproduced in South Korea

Fiber-reinforced plastic (FRP), dimensions variable. SeMA Biennale Mediacity Seoul 2014

2 7.senegal 3.60 85.8

Flood area in Senegal #1, Dakar, Senegal

2013. Digital C-print, 23 5/8 x 33 7/8 in. (60 x 86 cm)

2 8.senegal 4

Flood area in Senegal #2, Dakar, Senegal

2013. Digital C-print, 23 5/8 x 33 7/8 in. (60 x 86 cm)

1 1.zimbabwe 2 60 85.

Demolished site of statue of Joshua Nkomo (former vice president of Zimbabwe), Bulawayo, Zimbabwe

2013. Digital C-print, 23 5/8 x 33 7/8 in. (60 x 86 cm). From a series of photographs commissioned in 2013 by Musée du quai Branly, Paris

1 2.zimbabwe 3 1

Statue of Joshua Nkomo (former vice president of Zimbabwe), Bulawayo, Zimbabwe

2015. Digital C-print, 23 5/8 x 33 7/8 in. (60 x 86 cm)

1 3.bulawayo citizen 1

Bulawayo citizens in front of Nkomo statue

1 4.bulawayo citizen 2

Bulawayo citizens in front of Nkomo statue

1 5.bulawayo citizen 3

Bulawayo citizens in front of Nkomo statue

1 6.bulawayo citizen 4

Bulawayo citizens in front of Nkomo statue

1 7

Statue of Joshua Nkomo, built 2011 and installed in the backyard of the Natural History Museum, Bulawayo, Zimbabwe

2013. Digital C-print, 23 5/8 x 33 7/8 in. (60 x 86 cm). From a series of photographs commissioned in 2013 by Musée du quai Branly, Paris

Interview with Sibangilizwe Nkomo

Still from Mansudae Master Class . 2015. Three-channel HD video: color, 40 minutes, 30 seconds

1 9

The Story of My Life, autobiography of Joshua Nkomo

First published 1984 in London by Methuen Publishing Ltd.; reprinted June 2012 in Zimbabwe by R&S Litho

3 0

Headquarters of ZANU-PF (Zimbabwe African National Union–Patriotic Front), Harare, Zimbabwe

2013. Digital C-print, 23 5/8 x 33 7/8 in. (86 x 60 cm). From a series of photographs commissioned in 2013 by Musée du quai Branly, Paris

3 1.zimbabwe 1.

Hero’s Acre, built 1981, Harare, Zimbabwe

2013. Digital C-print, 23 5/8 x 33 7/8 in. (60 x 86 cm). From a series of photographs commissioned in 2013 by Musée du quai Branly, Paris

3 2.zimbabwe 6  60 85.8

National Railways of Zimbabwe Headquarters (tallest building in Bulawayo), Zimbabwe

2013. Digital C-print, 23 5/8 x 33 7/8 in. (60 x 86 cm)

3 3

ZANU-PF (Zimbabwe African National Union–Patriotic Front) campaign office, Bulawayo, Zimbabwe

2013. Digital C-print, 23 5/8 x 33 7/8 in. (60 x 86 cm). From a series of photographs commissioned in 2013 by Musée du quai Branly, Paris

1 1.

Rodong Sinmun (Workers’ Newspaper)

(Above) I support the people’s stance in North Korea demanding withdrawal of foreign armed forces from South Korea. Emphasized by president of Uganda. (Below) Korea cannot be divided in two, always to be one. Emphasized by president of Republic of Equatorial Guinea. Rodong Sinmun (Workers’ Newspaper), May 21, 1973

1 2.%e1%84%82%e1%85%a9%e1%84%83%e1%85%a9%e1%86%bc%e1%84%89%e1%85%b5%e1%86%ab%e1%84%86%e1%85%ae%e1%86%ab %e1%84%86%e1%85%a9%e1%84%8c%e1%85%a1%e1%86%b7%e1%84%87%e1%85%b5%e1%84%8f%e1%85%b3  %e1%84%86%e1%85%a1%e1%86%af%e1%84%85%e1%85%b5

Rodong Sinmun (Workers’ Newspaper)

(Left) The tenth-anniversary celebration of Mozambique’s independence, Kim Il-sung, general secretary of the Workers’ Party of Korea, sent to Samora Moisés Machel, leader of the National Liberation Front. Rodong Sinmun (Workers’ Newspaper), September 25, 1974. (Right) The fourteenth-anniversary celebration of the proclamation of Republic of Mali, Kim Il-sung, supreme leader of the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, sent to Moussa Traoré, chairman of the Military Committee for National Liberation. Rodong Sinmun (Workers’ Newspaper), September 21, 1974

1 3

Rodong Sinmun (Workers’ Newspaper)

The United Nations Command must disband and withdraw every foreign armed force from South Korea. Speech by the leader of Mali. Rodong Sinmun (Workers’ Newspaper), December 1, 1975

1 4 copy

Rodong Sinmun (Workers’ Newspaper)

Dear Great Leader, Kim Il-sung gave a grand banquet in honor of the president of Togo Gnassingbé Eyadéma’s visit to North Korea. Rodong Sinmun (Workers’ Newspaper), September 11, 1973

1 5

Rodong Sinmun (Workers’ Newspaper)

I support the fight of the people of the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea for peaceful unification without foreign power. Speech of Comrade Sam Nujoma at the banquet. Rodong Sinmun (Workers’ Newspaper), November 22, 1975

President Kim Il-sung meeting foreign heads of state, reedited by Onejoon Che

1 7

Kim Il-sung. Sur le travail de l’union des femmes (On the Work of the Women’s Union)

Pyongyang, 1971. Foreign Languages Publishing House, Pyoungyang, Korea. Printed in the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea

1 8.nk book the traces of korean communist

Kim Il-sung. Les Taches des Communistes Coréens (The Tasks of Korean Communists)

Pyongyang, 1972. Foreign Languages Publishing House, Pyoungyang, Korea. Printed in the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea

1 9.

Kim Jong Il. The Leader of the Youth Movement

Pyongyang: Kum Song Youth Publishing House, 1988. Foreign Languages Publishing House, Pyoungyang, Korea. Printed in the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea

2 0

Kim Il-sung. Réponses aux questions posées par le secrétaire général et d’amitié Peruvian-Coréen (Answers to the questions asked by the general secretary of the Cultural Institute for Peruvian-Korean Friendship)

Pyongyang, 1974. Foreign Languages Publishing House, Pyoungyang, Korea. Printed in the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea

2 1.nk book a great personality

A Great Personality

Foreign Languages Publishing House, Pyoungyang, Korea, 1984. Written by the editorial board of Foreign Languages Publishing House. Printed in the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea. No. 491819

Onejoon Che. Archival footage from Mansudae Master Class. 2015

2 3

Daily Production Report (21 June 2010–3 February 2011)

Found in garbage in February 2013. The third group consists of eighteen North Korean workers.

2 4

Daily Production Report (3 February 2011–2 June 2011)

Found in garbage in February 2013. The third group consists of eighteen North Korean workers.

2 5

Attendance book of Independence Hall, made by a North Korean worker in July 2010

Found in garbage in February 2013. Worker’s names, in order they are listed: Yongsuk Son, Heebok Kim, Namchul Kim, Gwangmyeong Kim, Sngwon Song, Youngil Kim, Jongsik Choi, Kyoungsung Kho, Chunmoung Kim, Hyun chul Park, Dongsik Kim, Daehong Cha, Yongchul Kim, Chunsam Kim, Ilsang Lee, Sunghuk Lee, Youngmin Kim, Chulnam Park

2 6

Blueprint of Independence Hall, made by Mansudae Overseas Project Group of Companies, Windhoek, Namibia

Found in garbage in February 2013

2 7

Auser Baalu Girma. Call of the Red Star

Book on Communism, produced for Ethiopians

2 8

Assefa Endeshaw. Sacrifice Life for Country (History of Red Flag)

c. 1980s. Book on Communism, produced for Ethiopians

2 9

Catalogue of Mansudae Overseas Project Group of Companies.

60 1

Sculptor Songsu Choe

Interior page from catalogue of Mansudae Overseas Project Group of Companies

60 2

Painter Hyoksin Choe

Interior page from catalogue of Mansudae Overseas Project Group of Companies

60 3

Sculptor Inmo Sin

Interior page from catalogue of Mansudae Overseas Project Group of Companies

60 4

Sculptor Younggwang Lee

Interior page from catalogue of Mansudae Overseas Project Group of Companies

3 0

Cover of booklet for Mansudae Overseas Project Group of Companies

3 2

Interior page of booklet for Mansudae Overseas Project Group of Companies

3 3

Interior page of booklet for Mansudae Overseas Project Group of Companies

3 4

Interior page of booklet for Mansudae Overseas Project Group of Companies

3 5

Interior page of booklet for Mansudae Overseas Project Group of Companies

3 6

Interior page of booklet for Mansudae Overseas Project Group of Companies

3 8 copy

Postcard (front)

Monument to Victory in the Fatherland Liberation War. Korea pictorial, Pyongyang, Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, 1993

3 9

Postcard (back)

Monument to Victory in the Fatherland Liberation War. Korea pictorial, Pyongyang, Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, 1993

4 0

Archive installation of Mansudae Master Class

2014. Ghosts, Spies, and Grandmothers , curated by artist Park Chan-kyong, SeMA Biennale Mediacity Seoul

M.m.c 3

Three Channel Video installation of Mansudae Master Class

2014. Ghosts, Spies, and Grandmothers , curated by artist Park Chan-kyong, SeMA Biennale Mediacity Seoul

New museum triennial 2015 benoit pailley 7723 (1)

Exhibition view of Mansudae Master Class

Triennial 2015: Surround Audience, co-curated by Lauren Cornell and Ryan Trecartin, New Museum

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Mansudae Master Class: The Monumental Gifts from North Korea

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